Scientists learn new details about the formation of the Earth

Researchers of geological processes on Earth are studying new data to understand the formation of the first rocks on our planet. In particular, the oldest geological formations are being studied.

Scientists found out more details about the formation of the Earth. Source:


Researchers have obtained new data that will help to understand the geological past of the Earth. Although we know which rocks formed in different parts of the planet 3.5 billion years ago, we still do not understand what geological processes caused these formations. Fortunately, the answers to these questions are available. Evidence has remained in ancient volcanic and sedimentary rocks dating back to the Archean period, from 4 to 2.5 billion years ago.

These rocks are found in the oldest parts of modern continents, which are called cratons. These geological formations are pieces of ancient continents formed billions of years ago. Studying them opens a window into how processes took place in the bowels and on the surface of the Earth in the past. They contain a variety of rock groups, including various metamorphic rocks and granites.

The key conclusions from this are that explosive volcanic eruptions were common in the territory of modern India, South Africa and Australia about 3.5 billion years ago. These eruptions mostly occurred under the oceans, although sometimes above them.

What have you learned about the formation of the Earth?

Scientists have taken samples of some rocks from the Singhbhum craton (Eastern India) to study them in the laboratory. For comparison, existing data from the same location, as well as from South Africa and Australia, were used.

Scientists have also found that the geology of this area bears striking similarities to the greenstone belts documented in South Africa’s Barberton and Nondweni areas and the Pilbara Craton in western Australia.

In particular, all these areas were subjected to large-scale underwater mafic (that is, with a high content of magnesium oxide) volcanic eruptions between 3.5 and 3.3 billion years ago, which were preserved in the form of pillowed lava and komatiites. This differs from silicic (with an increased concentration of silicon dioxide) volcanism, which, as studies have shown, was widespread about 3.5 billion years ago. The new findings enrich our understanding of ancient volcanic and sedimentary processes and their significance in the broader context of Earth’s geological and biological evolution.

Period of formation of our planet

The discoveries of scientists are key for several reasons. First, they provide a clearer picture of the early tectonic activity of the Earth in Archean times, contributing to our understanding of the periods of the planet’s formation. Secondly, the unique geological features of the Singhbhum craton, including its greenstone belts, provide invaluable information about the Earth’s surface and atmospheric processes. This is crucial for hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth.

In addition, comparing the Singhbhum craton with similar cratons in South Africa and Australia allows us to build a more complete model of the geological processes that took place in the Archaea. This may help shed light on the ancient geodynamic processes that prevailed in different parts of the young Earth.

This study highlights the need for further exploration of the geological history of ancient cratons around the world. Understanding these early terrestrial processes is vital to plotting the history of the planet’s evolution and the conditions that could support life.

According to

Follow us on Twitter to get the most interesting space news in time